読者です 読者をやめる 読者になる 読者になる

はてブロ@ama-ch

https://twitter.com/ama_ch

今日のPython

Program Python

正規表現

わからねえ・・・
http://www.python.jp/doc/release/lib/module-re.html


p.211 urlopen()を使ったサンプル

>>> import re
>>> import urllib
>>> url = "http://python.org/channews.rdf"
>>> src = urllib.urlopen(url).read()
>>> # ここがよくわからないんだ!
>>> for url in re.findall(r"<guid>(.*?)</guid>", src, re.M):
...     print url
... 
http://www.python.org/news/index.html#WedMay720081230-0400
http://www.python.org/news/index.html#Thu1May20082115-0400
以下略

timeモジュール

http://www.python.jp/doc/release/lib/module-time.html
この辺を見ながら。
p.215

>>> import time
>>> time.gmtime()
(2008, 5, 9, 4, 15, 18, 4, 130, 0)
>>> time.localtime()
(2008, 5, 9, 13, 15, 25, 4, 130, 0)
>>> time.ctime()
'Fri May  9 13:15:31 2008'
>>> time.asctime()
'Fri May  9 13:15:39 2008'
>>> time.time()
1210306553.7216139
>>> time.mktime(time.localtime())  #struct_time型の引数を与え、エポック経過時間にする
1210307286.0
>>> time.strftime("%y/%m/%d %H:%M:%S")  #フォーマットで指定した日付や時刻を表示する
'08/05/09 13:35:08'

calendarモジュール

http://www.python.jp/doc/release/lib/module-calendar.html
p.218

>>> import calendar
>>> calendar.weekday(2008, 5, 9)  #何曜日か調べる
4  #金曜日です
>>> calendar.weekday(9999, 12, 31)  #ここまで調べられた
4  #9999年の大晦日は金曜日!
>>> calendar.monthrange(2008, 5)  #2008年5月は・・・
(3, 31)  #木曜から始まり31日あります。
>>> print calendar.month(2008, 5)  #今月のカレンダーを表示!
      May 2008
Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su
          1  2  3  4
 5  6  7  8  9 10 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
26 27 28 29 30 31

>>> calendar.month(2008, 5)  #print入れないと改行されなくて変なる><
'      May 2008\nMo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su\n          1  2  3  4\n 5  6  7  8  9 10 11\n12 13 14 15 16 17 18\n19 20 21 22 23 24 25\n26 27 28 29 30 31\n'
>>> print calendar.monthcalendar(2008, 5)  #週単位のリストを返す
[[0, 0, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11], [12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18], [19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25], [26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 0]]
>>> calendar.isleap(2008)  #閏年かどうか調べる
True

sysモジュール

http://www.python.jp/doc/release/lib/module-sys.html
p.220

>>> import sys
>>> sys.maxint  #最大の整数
2147483647  #32bitなり
>>> sys.platform  #Pythonの稼働するプラットフォーム
'darwin'  #Mac OS Xのことらしい
>>> print sys.version  #バージョンを調べる
2.5.2 (r252:60911, Feb 22 2008, 07:57:53) 
[GCC 4.0.1 (Apple Computer, Inc. build 5363)]

osモジュール

http://www.python.jp/doc/release/lib/module-os.html
http://www.python.jp/doc/release/lib/os-file-dir.html#os-file-dir
p.227 walk()関数を使いディレクトリを走査する

>>> for dirpath, dirnames, filenames in os.walk("/Users/ama-ch/Desktop/Python-Docs-2.4"):
...     print dirpath, dirnames, filenames
... 
/Users/ama-ch/Desktop/Python-Docs-2.4 ['api', 'dist', 'doc', 'ext', 'icons', 'inst', 'lib', 'mac', 'ref', 'tut', 'whatsnew'] ['.DS_Store', 'about.html', 'acks.html', 'index.html', 'modindex.html']
/Users/ama-ch/Desktop/Python-Docs-2.4/api [] ['about.html', 'abstract-buffer.html', 'abstract.html', 'advanced-debugging.html', 'allocating-objects.html', 'api.css', 'api.html', 'arg-parsing.html', 'boolObjects.html', 'buffer-structs.html', 'bufferObjects.html', 'builtinCodecs.html', 'cell-objects.html', 'cObjects.html', 'common-structs.html', 'complexObjects.html', 'concrete.html', 'contents.html', 'countingRefs.html', 'datetime-objects.html', 'descriptor-objects.html', 'dictObjects.html', 'embedding.html', 'exceptionHandling.html', 'exceptions.html', 'fileObjects.html', 'floatObjects.html', 'front.html', 'fundamental.html', 'gen-objects.html', 'genindex.html', 'importing.html', 'includes.html', 'index.html', 'initialization.html', 'instanceObjects.html', 'intObjects.html', 'intro.html', 'iterator-objects.html', 'iterator.html', 'listObjects.html', 'longObjects.html', 'mapObjects.html', 'mapping-structs.html', 'mapping.html', 'marshalling-utils.html', 'memory.html', 'memoryExamples.html', 'memoryInterface.html', 'memoryOverview.html', 'method-objects.html', 'moduleObjects.html', 'newTypes.html', 'node15.html', 'node39.html', 'node40.html', 'node83.html', 'node84.html', 'node85.html', 'node86.html', 'node87.html', 'node88.html', 'node89.html', 'node90.html', 'node91.html', 'node92.html', 'node93.html', 'node94.html', 'node95.html', 'node96.html', 'node97.html', 'node98.html', 'node99.html', 'noneObject.html', 'number-structs.html', 'number.html', 'numericObjects.html', 'object.html', 'objects.html', 'os.html', 'otherObjects.html', 'processControl.html', 'profiling.html', 'refcountDetails.html', 'refcounts.html', 'reporting-bugs.html', 'sequence-structs.html', 'sequence.html', 'sequenceObjects.html', 'slice-objects.html', 'standardExceptions.html', 'stringObjects.html', 'supporting-cycle-detection.html', 'supporting-iteration.html', 'threads.html', 'tupleObjects.html', 'type-structs.html', 'typeObjects.html', 'types.html', 'typestruct.txt', 'unicodeMethodsAndSlots.html', 'unicodeObjects.html', 'utilities.html', 'veryhigh.html', 'weakref-objects.html']
/Users/ama-ch/Desktop/Python-Docs-2.4/dist [] ['about.html', 'api-reference.html', 'built-dist.html', 'concepts.html', 'creating-dumb.html', 'creating-rpms.html', 'describing-extensions.html', 'dist.css', 'dist.html', 'distutils-term.html', 'examples.html', 'extending.html', 'genindex.html', 'index.html', 'install-scripts-cmd.html', 'intro.html', 'listing-modules.html', 'listing-packages.html', 'manifest-options.html', 'manifest.html', 'meta-data.html', 'modindex.html', 'module-distutils.archiveutil.html', 'module-distutils.bcppcompiler.html', 'module-distutils.ccompiler.html', 'module-distutils.cmd.html', 'module-distutils.command.bdist.html', 'module-distutils.command.bdistdumb.html', 'module-distutils.command.bdistpackager.html', 'module-distutils.command.bdistrpm.html', 'module-distutils.command.bdistwininst.html', 'module-distutils.command.build.html', 'module-distutils.command.buildclib.html', 'module-distutils.command.buildext.html', 'module-distutils.command.buildpy.html', 'module-distutils.command.buildscripts.html', 'module-distutils.command.clean.html', 'module-distutils.command.config.html', 'module-distutils.command.html', 'module-distutils.command.install.html', 'module-distutils.command.installdata.html', 'module-distutils.command.installheaders.html', 'module-distutils.command.installlib.html', 'module-distutils.command.installscripts.html', 'module-distutils.command.register.html', 'module-distutils.command.sdist.html', 'module-distutils.core.html', 'module-distutils.cygwinccompiler.html', 'module-distutils.debug.html', 'module-distutils.deputil.html', 'module-distutils.dirutil.html', 'module-distutils.dist.html', 'module-distutils.emxccompiler.html', 'module-distutils.errors.html', 'module-distutils.extension.html', 'module-distutils.fancygetopt.html', 'module-distutils.filelist.html', 'module-distutils.fileutil.html', 'module-distutils.log.html', 'module-distutils.msvccompiler.html', 'module-distutils.mwerkscompiler.html', 'module-distutils.spawn.html', 'module-distutils.sysconfig.html', 'module-distutils.textfile.html', 'module-distutils.unixccompiler.html', 'module-distutils.util.html', 'module-distutils.version.html', 'node10.html', 'node11.html', 'node12.html', 'node14.html', 'node29.html', 'node79.html', 'node82.html', 'package-index.html', 'postinstallation-script.html', 'pure-mod.html', 'pure-pkg.html', 'python-terms.html', 'reference.html', 'sdist-cmd.html', 'setup-config.html', 'setup-script.html', 'simple-example.html', 'single-ext.html', 'source-dist.html']
/Users/ama-ch/Desktop/Python-Docs-2.4/doc [] ['about.html', 'classes.html', 'contents.html', 'cygwin.html', 'directories.html', 'discussion.html', 'doc.css', 'doc.html', 'futures.html', 'grammar-displays.html', 'graphics.html', 'gui-markup.html', 'img1.png', 'index.html', 'indexing.html', 'info-units.html', 'inline-markup.html', 'intro.html', 'latex-environments.html', 'latex-primer.html', 'latex-structure.html', 'latex-syntax.html', 'library-markup.html', 'meta-info.html', 'misc-text-markup.html', 'module-markup.html', 'node32.html', 'node33.html', 'node34.html', 'preamble-info.html', 'references.html', 'showing-examples.html', 'special-constructs.html', 'structured.html', 'style-guide.html', 'table-markup.html', 'tools-external.html', 'tools-internal.html', 'tools.html']
/Users/ama-ch/Desktop/Python-Docs-2.4/ext [] ['about.html', 'backToExample.html', 'building-on-windows.html', 'building.html', 'buildValue.html', 'callingPython.html', 'compilation.html', 'contents.html', 'cplusplus.html', 'defining-new-types.html', 'distributing.html', 'dnt-basics.html', 'dnt-type-methods.html', 'dynamic-linking.html', 'embedding.html', 'embeddingInCplusplus.html', 'errors.html', 'ext.css', 'ext.html', 'extending-with-embedding.html', 'front.html', 'high-level-embedding.html', 'index.html', 'intro.html', 'link-reqs.html', 'lower-level-embedding.html', 'methodTable.html', 'noddy.txt', 'noddy2.txt', 'noddy3.txt', 'noddy4.txt', 'node22.html', 'node23.html', 'node24.html', 'node26.html', 'node27.html', 'node28.html', 'node29.html', 'node30.html', 'node31.html', 'node32.html', 'node33.html', 'node48.html', 'node49.html', 'node50.html', 'node51.html', 'node52.html', 'node53.html', 'node54.html', 'node55.html', 'node56.html', 'node57.html', 'node58.html', 'node59.html', 'node60.html', 'node61.html', 'node62.html', 'node63.html', 'node64.html', 'node65.html', 'nullPointers.html', 'ownershipRules.html', 'parseTuple.html', 'parseTupleAndKeywords.html', 'pure-embedding.html', 'refcounts.html', 'refcountsInPython.html', 'reporting-bugs.html', 'run-func.txt', 'simpleExample.html', 'thinIce.html', 'typestruct.txt', 'using-cobjects.html', 'win-cookbook.html', 'win-dlls.html']
/Users/ama-ch/Desktop/Python-Docs-2.4/icons [] ['blank.gif', 'blank.png', 'contents.gif', 'contents.png', 'index.gif', 'index.png', 'modules.gif', 'modules.png', 'next.gif', 'next.png', 'previous.gif', 'previous.png', 'pyfav.gif', 'up.gif', 'up.png']
/Users/ama-ch/Desktop/Python-Docs-2.4/inst [] ['about.html', 'alt-install-windows.html', 'config-syntax.html', 'img1.png', 'img2.png', 'index.html', 'inst.css', 'inst.html', 'node7.html', 'search-path.html', 'standard-install.html', 'trivial-install.html', 'tweak-flags.html']
/Users/ama-ch/Desktop/Python-Docs-2.4/lib [] ['about.html', 'abstract-basic-auth-handler.html', 'abstract-digest-auth-handler.html', 'addresslist-objects.html', 'al-config-objects.html', 'al-port-objects.html', 'allos.html', 'asynchat-example.html', 'asyncore-example.html', 'atexit-example.html', 'attributes-ns-objects.html', 'attributes-objects.html', 'au-read-objects.html', 'au-write-objects.html', 'audio-device-objects.html', 'base-handler-objects.html', 'binary-objects.html', 'binhex-notes.html', 'bisect-example.html', 'bitstring-ops.html', 'bltin-code-objects.html', 'bltin-ellipsis-object.html', 'bltin-file-objects.html', 'bltin-null-object.html', 'bltin-type-objects.html', 'boolean-objects.html', 'boolean.html', 'browser-controllers.html', 'bsddb-objects.html', 'built-in-funcs.html', 'builtin.html', 'bytecodes.html', 'cacheftp-handler-objects.html', 'cd-parser-objects.html', 'cgi-intro.html', 'cgi-security.html', 'Cmd-objects.html', 'codec-objects.html', 'comparisons.html', 'compiler.html', 'completer-objects.html', 'condition-objects.html', 'ConfigParser-objects.html', 'console-objects.html', 'content-handler-objects.html', 'contents.html', 'cookie-example.html', 'cookie-jar-objects.html', 'cookie-objects.html', 'cookie-policy-objects.html', 'cookielib-examples.html', 'crypto.html', 'csv-contents.html', 'csv-fmt-params.html', 'curses-functions.html', 'curses-panel-objects.html', 'curses-textpad-objects.html', 'curses-window-objects.html', 'cursespanel-functions.html', 'datetime-date.html', 'datetime-datetime.html', 'datetime-objects.html', 'datetime-time.html', 'datetime-timedelta.html', 'datetime-tzinfo.html', 'dbhash-objects.html', 'debugger-commands.html', 'debugger-hooks.html', 'decimal-decimal.html', 'decimal-notes.html', 'decimal-recipes.html', 'decimal-signals.html', 'decimal-threads.html', 'decimal-tutorial.html', 'default-cookie-policy-objects.html', 'deque-recipes.html', 'differ-examples.html', 'differ-objects.html', 'dircmp-objects.html', 'dl-objects.html', 'doc-xmlrpc-servers.html', 'doctest-advanced-api.html', 'doctest-basic-api.html', 'doctest-debugging.html', 'doctest-DocTest.html', 'doctest-DocTestFinder.html', 'doctest-DocTestParser.html', 'doctest-DocTestRunner.html', 'doctest-Example.html', 'doctest-finding-examples.html', 'doctest-how-it-works.html', 'doctest-options.html', 'doctest-OutputChecker.html', 'doctest-simple-testfile.html', 'doctest-simple-testmod.html', 'doctest-soapbox.html', 'doctest-unittest-api.html', 'doctest-warnings.html', 'doctest-which-docstrings.html', 'dom-accessor-methods.html', 'dom-attr-objects.html', 'dom-attributelist-objects.html', 'dom-comment-objects.html', 'dom-conformance.html', 'dom-document-objects.html', 'dom-documenttype-objects.html', 'dom-element-objects.html', 'dom-example.html', 'dom-exceptions.html', 'dom-implementation-objects.html', 'dom-node-objects.html', 'dom-nodelist-objects.html', 'dom-objects.html', 'dom-pi-objects.html', 'dom-text-objects.html', 'dom-type-mapping.html', 'domeventstream-objects.html', 'dtd-handler-objects.html', 'dumbdbm-objects.html', 'email-dir.txt', 'email-mime.txt', 'email-simple.txt', 'email-unpack.txt', 'embedding-locale.html', 'entity-resolver-objects.html', 'event-objects.html', 'examples-imp.html', 'expat-content-models.html', 'expat-errors.html', 'expat-example.html', 'expaterror-objects.html', 'fault-objects.html', 'file-cookie-jar-classes.html', 'file-handler-objects.html', 'form-objects.html', 'formatter-impls.html', 'formatter-interface.html', 'forms-objects.html', 'fpectl-example.html', 'front.html', 'ftp-handler-objects.html', 'ftp-objects.html', 'genindex.html', 'gopher-handler.html', 'grammar-doctest.txt', 'handle-object.html', 'hotshot-example.html', 'hotshot-objects.html', 'html-parser-objects.html', 'htmlparser-example.html', 'http-basic-auth-handler.html', 'http-cookie-processor.html', 'http-digest-auth-handler.html', 'http-error-processor-objects.html', 'http-handler-objects.html', 'http-password-mgr.html', 'http-redirect-handler.html', 'httpconnection-objects.html', 'httplib-examples.html', 'httpresponse-objects.html', 'https-handler-objects.html', 'idle.html', 'imap4-example.html', 'imap4-objects.html', 'img1.png', 'img2.png', 'img3.png', 'img4.png', 'immutable-transforms.html', 'incremental-parser-objects.html', 'index.html', 'input-source-objects.html', 'inspect-classes-functions.html', 'inspect-source.html', 'inspect-stack.html', 'internet.html', 'interpreter-objects.html', 'intro.html', 'itertools-example.html', 'itertools-functions.html', 'itertools-recipes.html', 'language.html', 'legacy-unit-tests.html', 'lib.css', 'lib.html', 'locale-gettext.html', 'locator-objects.html', 'lock-objects.html', 'logging-config-api.html', 'logging-config-fileformat.html', 'mailbox-objects.html', 'markup.html', 'match-objects.html', 'matching-searching.html', 'message-objects.html', 'mh-folder-objects.html', 'mh-message-objects.html', 'mh-objects.html', 'mimetools-message-objects.html', 'mimetypes-objects.html', 'MimeWriter-objects.html', 'minidom-and-dom.html', 'minidom-example.txt', 'minimal-example.html', 'misc.html', 'mixer-device-objects.html', 'mmedia.html', 'modindex.html', 'module--winreg.html', 'module-aifc.html', 'module-al-constants.html', 'module-al.html', 'module-anydbm.html', 'module-array.html', 'module-asynchat.html', 'module-asyncore.html', 'module-atexit.html', 'module-audioop.html', 'module-base64.html', 'module-BaseHTTPServer.html', 'module-Bastion.html', 'module-binascii.html', 'module-binhex.html', 'module-bisect.html', 'module-bsddb.html', 'module-builtin.html', 'module-bz2.html', 'module-calendar.html', 'module-cd.html', 'module-cgi.html', 'module-CGIHTTPServer.html', 'module-cgitb.html', 'module-chunk.html', 'module-cmath.html', 'module-cmd.html', 'module-code.html', 'module-codecs.html', 'module-codeop.html', 'module-collections.html', 'module-colorsys.html', 'module-commands.html', 'module-compileall.html', 'module-compiler.ast.html', 'module-compiler.html', 'module-compiler.visitor.html', 'module-ConfigParser.html', 'module-Cookie.html', 'module-cookielib.html', 'module-copy.html', 'module-copyreg.html', 'module-cPickle.html', 'module-crypt.html', 'module-cStringIO.html', 'module-csv.html', 'module-curses.ascii.html', 'module-curses.html', 'module-curses.panel.html', 'module-curses.textpad.html', 'module-curses.wrapper.html', 'module-datetime.html', 'module-dbhash.html', 'module-dbm.html', 'module-decimal.html', 'module-DEVICE.html', 'module-difflib.html', 'module-dircache.html', 'module-dis.html', 'module-distutils.html', 'module-dl.html', 'module-doctest.html', 'module-DocXMLRPCServer.html', 'module-dumbdbm.html', 'module-dummythread.html', 'module-dummythreading.html', 'module-email.Charset.html', 'module-email.Encoders.html', 'module-email.Errors.html', 'module-email.Generator.html', 'module-email.Header.html', 'module-email.html', 'module-email.Iterators.html', 'module-email.Message.html', 'module-email.Parser.html', 'module-email.Utils.html', 'module-encodings.idna.html', 'module-errno.html', 'module-exceptions.html', 'module-fcntl.html', 'module-filecmp.html', 'module-fileinput.html', 'module-fl-constants.html', 'module-fl.html', 'module-flp.html', 'module-fm.html', 'module-fnmatch.html', 'module-formatter.html', 'module-fpectl.html', 'module-fpformat.html', 'module-ftplib.html', 'module-future.html', 'module-gc.html', 'module-gdbm.html', 'module-getopt.html', 'module-getpass.html', 'module-gettext.html', 'module-gl-constants.html', 'module-gl.html', 'module-glob.html', 'module-gopherlib.html', 'module-grp.html', 'module-gzip.html', 'module-heapq.html', 'module-hmac.html', 'module-hotshot.html', 'module-hotshot.stats.html', 'module-htmlentitydefs.html', 'module-htmllib.html', 'module-HTMLParser.html', 'module-httplib.html', 'module-imageop.html', 'module-imaplib.html', 'module-imgfile.html', 'module-imghdr.html', 'module-imp.html', 'module-inspect.html', 'module-itertools.html', 'module-jpeg.html', 'module-keyword.html', 'module-linecache.html', 'module-locale.html', 'module-logging.html', 'module-mailbox.html', 'module-mailcap.html', 'module-main.html', 'module-marshal.html', 'module-math.html', 'module-md5.html', 'module-mhlib.html', 'module-mimetools.html', 'module-mimetypes.html', 'module-MimeWriter.html', 'module-mimify.html', 'module-mmap.html', 'module-msvcrt.html', 'module-multifile.html', 'module-mutex.html', 'module-netrc.html', 'module-new.html', 'module-nis.html', 'module-nntplib.html', 'module-operator.html', 'module-optparse.html', 'module-os.html', 'module-os.path.html', 'module-ossaudiodev.html', 'module-parser.html', 'module-pdb.html', 'module-pickle.html', 'module-pipes.html', 'module-pkgutil.html', 'module-platform.html', 'module-popen2.html', 'module-poplib.html', 'module-posix.html', 'module-posixfile.html', 'module-pprint.html', 'module-profile.html', 'module-pty.html', 'module-pwd.html', 'module-pyclbr.html', 'module-pycompile.html', 'module-pydoc.html', 'module-Queue.html', 'module-quopri.html', 'module-random.html', 'module-re.html', 'module-readline.html', 'module-repr.html', 'module-resource.html', 'module-rexec.html', 'module-rfc822.html', 'module-rgbimg.html', 'module-rlcompleter.html', 'module-robotparser.html', 'module-sched.html', 'module-ScrolledText.html', 'module-select.html', 'module-sets.html', 'module-sgmllib.html', 'module-sha.html', 'module-shelve.html', 'module-shlex.html', 'module-shutil.html', 'module-signal.html', 'module-SimpleHTTPServer.html', 'module-SimpleXMLRPCServer.html', 'module-site.html', 'module-smtpd.html', 'module-smtplib.html', 'module-sndhdr.html', 'module-socket.html', 'module-SocketServer.html', 'module-stat.html', 'module-statcache.html', 'module-statvfs.html', 'module-string.html', 'module-StringIO.html', 'module-stringprep.html', 'module-struct.html', 'module-subprocess.html', 'module-sunau.html', 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randomモジュール

http://www.python.jp/doc/release/lib/module-random.html
p.234 randint(a, b) - a以上b以下のランダムな整数を生成

>>> import random
>>> for i in range(random.randint(5, 20)):
...     print random.randint(1, 100)
... 
45
32
2
51
42
58
77


p.236
引数に与えたシーケンスの中から、ランダムに選んだ1つの要素を返すchoice()

>>> a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
>>> random.choice(a)
5
>>> random.choice(a)
2
>>> random.choice(a)
3


シーケンスの要素をランダムに入れ替えるshuffle()

>>> a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
>>> random.shuffle(a)
>>> a
[5, 1, 2, 4, 3]


シーケンスから指定した個数のサンプルを引き抜くsample()

>>> a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
>>> random.sample(a, 3)
[1, 4, 2]